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The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Translation of preen — English—Traditional Chinese dictionary. The company preened itself for hav ing taken on so many new employees last year. Translations of preen in Turkish. Need a translator? Translator tool. Browse predominantly. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes.
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Soft spots and big guns Idioms and phrases in newspapers. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Follow us. Choose a dictionary. Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. Usage explanations of natural written and spoken English. Word Lists.
Choose your language. My word lists. Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. If a bird preens or preens itself, it makes its feathers clean and tidy. Translations of preen in Chinese Traditional. Need a translator? Translator tool. Browse predisposed adjective. Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Blog Soft spots and big guns Idioms and phrases in newspapers October 07, Read More.
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Tools to create your own word lists and quizzes. Word lists shared by our community of dictionary fans. Sign up now or Log in.There is considerable genetic, linguistic, cultural, artistic, and social diversity among the many Malay subgroups, mainly due to hundreds of years of immigration and assimilation of various regional ethnicity and tribes within Maritime Southeast Asia.
Historically, the Malay population is descended primarily from the earlier Malayic -speaking Austronesians and Austroasiatic tribes who founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably BruneiKedahLangkasukaGangga NegaraChi TuNakhon Si ThammaratPahangMelayu and Srivijaya. The advent of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century triggered a major revolution in Malay history, the significance of which lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy.
Common definitive markers of a Malayness — the religion of Islamthe Malay language and traditions — are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region. The golden age of the Malay sultanates in the Malay PeninsulaSumatra and Borneo saw many of their inhabitants, particularly from various tribal communities like the BatakDayakOrang Asli and the Orang Laut become subject to Islamisation and Malayisation.
Throughout their history, the Malays have been known as a coastal-trading community with fluid cultural characteristics. The term is thought to be derived from the Malay word melajua combination of the verbal prefix 'me' and the root word 'laju', meaning "to accelerate", used to describe the accelerating strong current of the river. The word "Melayu" as an ethnonymto allude to a clearly different ethnological cluster, is assumed to have been made fashionable throughout the integration of the Malacca Sultanate as a regional power in the 15th century.
It was applied to report the social partialities of the Malaccans as opposed to foreigners as of the similar area, especially the Javanese and Thais  This is evidenced from the early 16th century Malay word-list by Antonio Pigafetta who joined the Magellan's circumnavigationthat made a reference to how the phrase chiara Malaiu 'Malay ways' was used in the maritime Southeast Asiato refer to the al parlare de Malaea Italian for "to speak of Malacca".
The English term "Malay" was adopted via the Dutch word Malayo, itself derived from Portuguese : Malaiowhich originates from the original Malay word, Melayu. Prior to the 15th century, the term "Melayu" and its similar-sounding variants appear to apply as an old toponym to the Strait of Malacca region in general. Other suggestions include the Javanese word mlayu as a verb: to run, participle: fugitive derived from mlaku to walk or to travelor the Malay term melaju to steadily acceleratereferring to the high mobility and migratory nature of its people.
De Barros mentioned that Iskandar Shah named the Malaios Malays so because of the banishment of his father from his country. Albuquerque explained that Parameswara fled malayo from the kingdom of Palembang to Malacca. Also known as Melayu asli aboriginal Malays or Melayu purba ancient Malaysthe Proto-Malays are of Austronesian origin and thought to have migrated to the Malay archipelago in a long series of migrations between and BC.
The Deutero-Malays are Iron Age people descended partly from the subsequent Austronesian peoples who came equipped with more advanced farming techniques and new knowledge of metals. These kampungs were normally situated on the riverbanks or coastal areas and generally self-sufficient in food and other necessities.
By the end of the last century BC, these kampungs beginning to engage in some trade with the outside world. A more recent theory holds that rather than being populated by expansion from the mainland, the Ice Age populations of the Malay peninsula, neighbouring Indonesian archipelago, and the then-exposed continental shelf Sundaland instead developed locally from the first human settlers and expanded to the mainland.
Proponents of this theory hold that this expansion gives a far more parsimonious explanation of the linguistic, archaeological, and anthropological evidence than earlier models, particularly the Taiwan model. The expansion itself may have been driven by rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age. Proponent Stephen Oppenheimer has further theorised that the expansion of peoples occurred in three rapid surges due to rising sea levels at the end of the Ice Age, and that this diaspora spread the peoples and their associated cultures, myths, and technologies not just to mainland Southeast Asia, but as far as India, the Near East, and the Mediterranean.The Malays speak various dialects belonging to the Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian family of languages.
The Malays were once probably a people of coastal Borneo who expanded into Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula as a result of their trading and seafaring way of life. That this expansion occurred only in the last 1, years or so is indicated by the fact that the languages of the Malay group are all still very much alike though very divergent from the languages of other peoples of Sumatra, Borneo, and other neighbouring lands.
In the early 21st century the Malays constituted about half of the population of Peninsular Malaysia West Malaysia and about one-eighth of the population of East Malaysia Sarawak and Sabah.
Malay culture has been strongly influenced by the cultures of other areas, including ThailandJavaand Sumatra. The influence of Hindu India was historically very great. The Malays were largely Hinduized before they were converted to Islam in the 15th century.
Many Malays are rural people, living in villages rather than towns. Much of the Malay Peninsula is covered by jungle, and the villages, with populations from 50 to 1, are located along rivers and coasts or on roads. Traditional houses are built on pilings that raise them four to eight feet off the ground, with gabled roofs made of thatch; houses of the more affluent have plank floors and tile roofs. The principal food crop is rice from paddiesand rubber and palm oil are the main cash crops.
Traditionally, Malay social organization was somewhat feudal, with a sharp division between nobility and commoners. The head of a village was a commoner, but the chief of the district, to whom the village head reported, was a member of the nobility. Since the late 20th century, however, the nobility has been replaced by appointed and elected officials subject to a parliament and other elected bodies, although class distinctions have persisted.
With rapidly accelerating rural-to-urban migration, many Malays have left their villages to settle in cities, towns, and suburbs, where they now work in virtually every industry. Marriages have traditionally been arranged by the parents. The typical household consists of the husband and wife and their children. Muslim religious holidays are observed. Some Hindu ritual survives, as in the second part of the marriage ceremony and in various ceremonies of state.
In some rural areas the Malays have also preserved some of their old beliefs in spirits of the soil and jungle, which are partly Hindu in origin; they often have recourse to traditional healers bomoh s for the treatment of disease.
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The prestige that was accorded the sacred Seguntang…. History at your fingertips. Sign up here to see what happened On This Dayevery day in your inbox! Email address.Thai alphabet in Thailand Malay Braille. A language of the Malaysit is spoken by million people  across the Strait of Malaccaincluding the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and the eastern coast of Sumatra in Indonesia and has been established as a native language of part of western coastal Sarawak and West Kalimantan in Borneo.
It is also used as a trading language in the southern Philippinesincluding the southern parts of the Zamboanga Peninsulathe Sulu Archipelago and the southern predominantly Muslim -inhabited municipalities of Bataraza and Balabac in Palawan. As the Bahasa Kebangsaan or Bahasa Nasional "national language" of several states, Standard Malay has various official names.
However, in areas of central to southern Sumatra where vernacular varieties of Malay are indigenous, Indonesians refer to it as Bahasa Melayu and consider it one of their regional languages. Standard Malay, also called Court Malay, was the literary standard of the pre-colonial Malacca and Johor Sultanates, and so the language is sometimes called Malacca, Johor or Riau Malay or various combinations of those names to distinguish it from the various other Malayan languages.
According to Ethnologue 16, several of the Malayan varieties they currently list as separate languages, including the Orang Asli varieties of Peninsular Malay, are so closely related to standard Malay that they may prove to be dialects. There are also several Malay trade and creole languages which are based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay as well as Macassar Malaywhich appears to be a mixed language. Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast.
Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesiana descendant of the Proto-Austronesian languagebegan to break up by at least BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan.
It is not clear that Old Malay was actually the ancestor of Classical Malay, but this is thought to be quite possible. Old Malay was influenced by the Sanskrit literary language of Classical India and a scriptural language of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit loanwords can be found in Old Malay vocabulary. The earliest known stone inscription in the Old Malay language was found in Sumatra, written in the Pallava variety of the Grantha alphabet  and is dated May 1, Known as the Kedukan Bukit inscriptionit was discovered by the Dutchman M.
The laws were for the Minangkabau peoplewho today still live in the highlands of Sumatra. The Malay language came into widespread use as the lingua franca of the Malacca Sultanate — During this period, the Malay language developed rapidly under the influence of Islamic literature.
The development changed the nature of the language with massive infusion of ArabicTamil and Sanskrit vocabularies, called Classical Malay.
Under the Sultanate of Malacca the language evolved into a form recognisable to speakers of modern Malay. When the court moved to establish the Johor Sultanate, it continued using the classical language; it has become so associated with Dutch Riau and British Johor that it is often assumed that the Malay of Riau is close to the classical language. However, there is no closer connection between Malaccan Malay as used on Riau and the Riau vernacular. Among the oldest surviving letters written in Malay are the letters from Sultan Abu Hayat of TernateMaluku Islands in present-day Indonesia, dated around — Malay was used solely as a lingua franca for inter-ethnic communications.
Malay is a member of the Austronesian family of languages, which includes languages from Southeast Asia and the Pacific Oceanwith a smaller number in continental Asia. Malagasya geographic outlier spoken in Madagascar in the Indian Oceanis also a member of this language family.
Although these languages are not necessarily mutually intelligible to any extent, their similarities are rather striking. Many roots have come virtually unchanged from their common ancestor, Proto-Austronesian language. There are many cognates found in the languages' words for kinship, health, body parts and common animals. Numbers, especially, show remarkable similarities.
Within Austronesian, Malay is part of a cluster of numerous closely related forms of speech known as the Malayic languageswhich were spread across Malaya and the Indonesian archipelago by Malay traders from Sumatra.Last Updated: March 29, References. To create this article, 12 people, some anonymous, worked to edit and improve it over time. This article has been viewed 98, times.
The alphabet and its pronunciation have a very important role in Malay, so you will want to learn this as thoroughly as possible before attempting to master Malay words.
Listen to the Malay accent. If possible, speak with a native Malay speaker, or simply listen to him talk. This will help you to detect the way he intonates his speech and the general rhythm of the Malay language. This can help you learn to speak Malay much quicker than looking at the words alone. Hearing the language will help you grasp it better.
Attempt to find a video that features a person who seems very comfortable with the language and possibly introduces him or herself as a native speaker. Note that emphasis regularly falls on the penultimate syllable in a word in Malay. Understand the use of numbers in Malay. Understanding the role of numbers in the structure of the Malay language is the first step of being able to count in Malay. Similar to many other languages, Malay uses both cardinal and ordinal numbers similar to how we speak in Englishbut cardinal numbers will be the ones that you use for counting to ten.
Malay ordinal numbers tell the order of things in a set for example, first, second, third, etc.Malay(Bahasa Malaysia)-English: 500 most common words in English-Malay: Bahasa Inggeris
These numbers do not show quantity, but instead show rank, order, or position.Length, approximately 1, km from north to south ; area, aboutsq km. The Isthmus of Kra is its northern border. At times the peninsula is considered to extend north of Kra, up to the northern tip of the Gulf of Thailand. Within these boundaries the peninsula is 1, km long.
The axial zone of the Malay Peninsula is formed by low and medium-height mountains. The maximum elevation is 2, m Mt. Mountains are divided into separate massifs with gently sloping dome-shaped summits and steep slopes. In the periphery areas there are hilly plains and lowlands; the lowlands are frequently swampy. It is composed of geosynclinal strata that have been crumpled into folds of a submeridional direction: terrigenous from the Cambrian and late Precambrian, carbonate-terrigenous from the Ordovician and Silurian Setul seriesterrigenous from the Silurian-Carbon Kanchanaburi seriesand terrigenous-carbonate with vulcanites from the Middle Carbon-Permian Raub series.
Orogenic formations are represented by Triassic terrigenous deposits Lipis series with levels of acidic vulcanites and detrital rock of the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous. Various depressions are filled with Cenozoic sediments. Mesozoic granite, with which numerous deposits of tin and tungsten are linked the richest minerals of the Malay areais widespread. Other known deposits include gold, copper, iron, molybdenum, lead, zinc, bauxite, and coal.
The climate is equatorial in the south and subequatorial, characterized by monsoons, in the north. Annual precipitation totals 1, mm over the plains and 4, mm in the mountains. About three-fourths of the Malay Peninsula is covered with thick tropical evergreen rain forests, in which there are figs, Dipterocarpaceae, Indian banyan, camphor trees, giant bamboos, and epiphytes.
Along the coastal lowlands there are mangrove forests. The forests are inhabited by gibbons, lemurs, Malay tapirs, flying lemurs, Chiroptera short-nosed bats, large flying foxesrhinoceroses, and elephants.
It is the official language of Malaysia. Malay belongs to the Indonesian group of Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian languages and is divided into numerous dialects.
Old Malay, dating from the seventh to the tenth century A. Widely used in southern Sumatra as the language of trade, Malay became the language of culture and Islam in many parts of the Malay Archipelago beginning in the 15th century. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, an extensive literature was created in Malay written in the Arabic script ; the language of this literature is known as classical Malay.
From the second half of the 19th century newspapers in Malay were published in the Dutch East Indies. The modern Malay literary language of Malaysia, also known as Malaysian, differs from Indonesian chiefly in vocabulary but also to some extent in phonetics and certain morphological and syntactic features.
Related to Malay: Malay Archipelago. Malay: see Malayan Malayan or Malaygeneral term for one of a population of persons inhabiting SE Asia and the adjacent islands. The Malays vary greatly in physical appearance. Click the link for more information. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia